The Bitterness Complex
Mental Attitude Sin of Bitterness
Sins of the Tongue of Bitterness
Overt Sins of Bitterness
Functions of Bitterness
Soulish, Physical, Psychosomatic Problems
Bitter Suffering
Signs of Bitterness in the Hands
Symbols of Bitterness
Bitterness from Satanic Influence
Bitterness in Astrology


1.  Bitterness is one of the big five Mental Attitude Sins (MAS).Sins
2.  Bitterness is a complex of sins that may be expressed as a Mental Attitude Sin, sin of the tongue, or overt sin.  Examples include anger, malignity, malice, slander.
3.  ojrghv (orge) = anger, wrath (Eph 4:31; Col 3:8; Jas 1:19-20)
4.  pikriva (pikria) = bitterness (Eph 4:31; Col 3:8)
5.  rr^m* (marar) = be bitter (Gen 49:23; 1 Sam 30:6)
6.  hm*j^ (chamah) = anger, buttermilk (Dan. 3:13)
7.  [a^ ('aph) = anger (Gen 27:45), nose, face
8.  God's anger (Zeph 2:3; Heb 3:10, 17) and wrath (Rom 1:18) are anthropopathisms.


1.  Bitterness is a sin of reaction and rejection.
2.  Bitterness is fueled by jealousy, which divides, separates, rebels, and knocks out love.  Bitterness adds animosity toward  the person or thing that caused the reaction.
3.  Bitterness is a sin against God (including His Peace, Love, and Grace) even though it is directed at others (Heb 12:15).
4.  Bitterness can be active or passive voice.  Aggression is active, and being embittered is passive.
5.  Bitterness may begin as antipathy and ill will, but it may grow into the worst sin, including anger, implacability, vituperation, vilification, and murder.
6.  The embittered soul may result from lack of Capacity for Life and Love.  The embittered soul departs from Spiritual Self-Esteem and self-destructs.
7.  Bitterness requires Rebound to restore the Filling of the Holy Spirit and use of the Problem Solving Devices to protect from the outside pressures of adversity.
8.  Bitterness is a type of cursing.  It may be used to curse, or it may result from being cursed (Nu 5:19-27; Job 3:20; 9:18; 21:25; Lam 3:15, 19).
9.  Bitterness is symbolized by biting of serpents (Gen 49:17; Prov 23:32; Eccl 10:8, 11; Jer 8:17; Amos 5:19; 9:3; Gal 5:15), animals (e.g. dogs, wolves, lions), and insects (e.g. ants, bees).
10.  Plants may also symbolize bitterness, for example, from their taste (e.g. wormwood, bitter herbs) or the reaction they cause (e.g. thorns, poison).

The Bitterness Complex

1.  Bitterness is a sin of reaction to the four dimensions of the Spiritual life, which are the X, Y, Z, and Time axes of the Space-Time Coordinate System.  The reaction is first against God, and then, others.
     Z-axis Cosmic Babylon rejection of God's authority, rejection of Rebound Mental Attitude Sins.
     X-axis Ecumenical Babylon rejection of Bible Doctrine and Faith; apostasy Sins of the Tongue.
     Y-axis Political Babylon rejection of the Love of God Overt Sins.
     Time-axis rejection of Grace, refusal to wait on the Lord.
2.  Z-axis (Cosmic Babylon) attacks include attacks upon authority and Spirituality, including Mental Attitude Sins.
    Examples:  Bitterness toward authority figures, e. g. governing authorities, supervisors, the husband in Marriage, and pastors.  Bitterness sins include implacability, recalcitrance, wanton behavior, dictatorial belligerence.
3.  X-axis (Ecumenical Babylon) attacks include sins of the tongue, vilification, lying, gossip, slander, maligning, false teaching.
4.  Y-axis (Political Babylon) attacks include murder, tyranny, aggression, fighting, assault, criminality, and rape.
5.  Time-axis attacks include idleness, provoked and unprovoked reaction, and unwillingness to wait on the Lord.

Mental Attitude Sin of Bitterness

1.  Bitterness is a Mental Attitude Sin, which means the volition chooses to react.
2.  Bitterness is caused by a reactor factor, which is a source of irritation (Eph 4:26; Prov 10:12; 15:18; 28:25; 29:22).
Become angry (caused by a reactor factor) and stop sinning (Rebound).  Do not let the Sun set on your provoked anger. (Eph 4:26)

This means:  when you become angry (imperative of entreaty), stop sinning by using Rebound.

     a.  Bitterness attacks the problem, while fear runs from it.
     b.  Reactor factors include insults (2 Ki 5:10-12; Esther 3:5; Job 19:3; 2 Cor 12:10; 1 Pet 3:9), threats (Gen 27:41-44), loss of money (Prov 14:20; 19:7; Acts 19:24-28), mockery (Gen 21:9; Job 12:4; 17:6; 30:1, 9-10; 34:7; Psa 22:6-7; Prov 30:17; Isa 53:3; Jer 20:7; Lam 3:14; Mt 27:29; Mk 15:31-32; Acts 2:13; Gal 4:29), injustice (Gen 27:41; Psa 69:4; 105:25), fear (Nu 13:31-33; 21:34; 2 Ki 10:4; 2 Chron 20:15; Neh 4:14; Psa 27:3; 118:6; 1 Pet 3:14), jealousy (Gen 37:4-8; Lk 15:28), reproach (Psa 31:11; 69:7-12, 19, 20; 88:8).
3.  Whether mild or intense, bitterness is a sin that knocks out the Spiritual Life.
4.  Bitterness opposes the source of irritation and makes enemies.
5.  Mental Attitude Sins of Bitterness include anger, implacability, ill-will, antagonism, resentment, irritation, hatred, malice, acrimony, belligerency, contentiousness, wrath.
6.  Bitterness rejects Bible Doctrine (James 3:14).
7.  Bitterness destroys the Spiritual life (Isa 38:15, 17; Prov 14:10; Rom 3:14; Heb 12:15; Jas 3:14) and must be removed from the believer (Eph. 4:31; Col 3:8).
8.  Suffering in the Cycles of National Cursing causes bitterness (Lam. 1:4; Amos 8:10; Isa 33:7).
9.  Barrenness caused Samuel's mother to be bitter (1 Sam 1:6, 10).
10.  A foolish son causes bitterness to the mother (Prov. 17:25)
11.  Bitterness destroys love relationships with God and man (1 Jn 4:20) and in Marriage (Colossians 3:19).
12.  Adultery brings bitterness from intensified Divine punishment (Prov 5:4; Eccl 7:26).
13.  Anger is the viewpoint or expression of reaction (James 1:19-20).  Anger motivates terrorists (Amos 1:11).
     a.  Solution - Rebound and leave the problem in the Lord's hands (Romans 12:19-20; Matt 26:62-63; 27:12-14).  Never take your own revenge.  Forgive (Lk 23:34; Eph 4:32).
     b.  Do not be vindictive or curse (Rom 12:14; Matt 5:44; Luke 6:28; 1 Cor 4:12).
     c.  Never pay back evil with evil (Rom 12:17; 1 Pet 3:9).
     d.  Do not provoke children to anger (Eph 6:4).
     e.  Be slow to anger (Prov 15:1, 18; 16:32; 19:11; Eccl 7:9; Jas 1:19).
     f.  Separate from angry people (Prov 22:24).
     g.  Appease the fury of the king (Prov 16:14).

Sins of the Tongue of Bitterness

1.  Bitterness may be expressed through sins of the tongue (Rom 3:14).
2.  Bitterness, like worry, leads to complaining (Job 7:11; 10:1; Ex 15:22-23; 17:2-3; John 7:19).
     a.  Characteristic of the Exodus generation who died in the wilderness (Ex 17:2-3)
     b.  Characteristic of those who wanted to kill Jesus (Jn 7:19).
3.  Bitterness pollutes self and others (Matt 15:11, 18; Heb 12:15; Jas 3:6).
4.  Sins of the tongue of bitterness include gossip, slander, lying, maligning, vituperation, vilification, judging.
     a.  Vituperation is gossip, maligning, judging (1 Sam 17:28; 20:30; Psa 57:4; 59:7; 64:3-4; Matt 7:1-2; Jas 4:11-12).
     b.  Vilification is deliberately creating a public lie to ruin someone else (Prov 26:28; Matt 9:3; 26:59, 65; 27:12-13; Mk 2:7; Jn 10:36)..

Overt Sins of Bitterness

1.  Sins of bitterness may be expressed overtly (Prov 29:22; Lk 22:63-65; Acts 19:28-29).
2.  Overt sins of bitterness include murder, violence, tyranny, bloodshed, fighting, assault, battery, criminality, and rape.  Pastors should not be pugnacious (1 Tim 3:3).
3.  Bitterness may be expressed in weeping (Gen 27:34; 2 Sam 13:36; Jer 31:15), mourning (1 Sam 15:32; Jer 6:26; Ezek 27:31), and gnashing teeth (Job 16:9; Psa 37:12; Lam 2:16; Matt 8:12; 13:42; Acts 7:54).
4.  Mocking is an act of ridicule or derision, which may include scornful or contemptuous sins of the tongue, sneering, jibing, jeering (Psa 22:7; 35:15-16; Mt 9:24; 27:29, 39), or laughing at (Judg 16:25, 27; 2 Chron 30:10; Job 30:1; Prov 26:19; Lam 1:7; Hab 1:10).
You cannot build your happiness on someone else's unhappiness.
5.  Mockery is characteristic of the fool, whose arrogance (Prov 14:16) is a cover for roots of bitterness that make an enemy of God and reject Bible Doctrine (1 Sam 25:25; Psa 14:1; 74:10, 18; Prov 1:7, 22; 7:22; 10:21, 23; 14:8-10; 26:18-19; Eccl 5:1, 3-4; 7:9; 10:12-15; Isa 26:11; Lam 1:2, 5, 9, 16, 21; 2:16; Matt 10:36; Rom 5:10; 1 Cor 1:18; Phil 3:18; Jas 4:4; Jude 1:18).

Functions of Bitterness

1.  Bitterness turns love into hatred (2 Sam 13:15; Psa 55:12-13) and reverses the polarity of Good and evil (1 Ki 21:20; 22:8; Micah 3:2; Jn 7:7; 15:18-19; Rom 12:9; 2 Ti 3:3).
2.  Bitterness turns happiness into into mourning (Lam 5:15; Amos 8:10) and malice.
     Malice is the lust to hurt, to destroy someone else, like vituperation or vilification.
3.  Bitterness turns blessing into cursing.
4.  Bitterness blames God and man for ones own bad decisions and flaws and failures, so that the believer out of fellowship never takes responsibility for his own bad decisions, but through the motivation of bitterness, always finds someone else to blame.
5.  Bitterness is the fuel that runs the arrogance skills (self-denial, self-justification, self-absorption) (Prov 26:20-22).
6.  Bitterness produces bad emotion, and therefore, contributes to the state of perpetual carnality.
7.  Bitterness destroys the Spiritual life (Isa 38:15, 17; Prov 14:10; Rom 3:14; Heb 12:15; Jas 3:14).

Soulish, Physical, Psychosomatic Problems

1.  Bitterness is a sin that takes one into the darkness of the Cosmic System.
2.  Bitterness may cause Blackout of the Soul, Emotional Revolt of the Soul, and Reversionism.
3.  A person who suddenly becomes bitter may appear to be Jekyll and Hyde (Lk 4:22-29).
4.  Bitterness causes lower back pain and weakness, hip pain, and may cause angina.
     a.  Bitterness causes unhappiness, being unloving, unable to socialize, and being disillusioned.
     b.  Bitterness may be covered over with victim mentality, self-righteous arrogance, or snobbishness and is, therefore, hard to spot (Ps 12:2; 28:3; Prov 26:24-25; Jer 9:2-8; 12:6; Mic 7:5; Mt 24:23).
     c.  Bitterness may include harshness, being overly serious, inability to relax, and having no peace (Isa 48:22; 57:20-21; 59:8; Rom 3:17).
     d.  Bitterness may cause burnouts, addictions, or workaholic tendencies.
     e.  Psychosomatic symptoms include circulation problems of the heart, brain, lungs, and endocrine glands.1
5.  Bitterness and anger are the pins of the grenades that explode in  psychopathic behavior, murder, and plots of revenge (Matt 22:15; Mk 3:6; 12:13; Lk 6:11).
6.  Anger may cause a person to be easily provoked, having a short fuse, irritable, frustrated, impatient, unforgiving, aggressive, resentful.
     a.  Anger may cause a person to be stuck on the past and unable to move on.
     b.  Anger may cause loss of Spiritual Self-Esteem and self-destructive behavior, including suicidal desires (Job 3:20; Jon 4:1-4, 8-9).
     c.  Anger may cause disruptive behavior and disruption of team work (Prov 29:9).
     d.  Suppressed anger may cause muscular tension, stiffness, digestive disorders, and depression.
     e.  Suppressed anger may cause denial and projection as in the case of the Exodus generation, who hated Moses but accused him of wanting to kill them (Exodus 17:3).  Denial and projection may cause a bent forefinger.2
     f.  Psychosomatic problems may include symptoms in  the liver, gallbladder, nervous system, muscles, and tendons.1
7.  When bitterness and anger are not handled through Rebound and the Problem Solving Devices, defense mechanisms in the soul may lead to psychological problems of denial, projection, dissociation, or suppression.  When bitterness goes into the subconscious, it can surface as a monster.
8.  Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome is characterized by expressions of bitterness and anger.
9.  Schizophrenia is a characterized by simultaneous polarization of love and hate.  The mental illness opens the door to demon influence.  Simultaneous love and hate are characteristic of Satan and demons.
10.  Snobbishness includes self-righteousness toward friends and bitterness toward others.  This may lead to suppressed bitterness.

Bitter Suffering

1.  Bitterness may be used to describe harsh suffering.  Victims of the wrath of others may describe their suffering as bitter.
     a.  Naomi was bitter after losing her husband and sons (Ru 1:20).
     b.  Job was bitter in his suffering (Job 9:18).
     c.  Judah was bitter from the wrath of God (Is 29:9; 51:17; Jer 9:15; 25:15-17).
     d.  Jeremiah was sated with bitterness over the destruction of Jerusalem (Lam 3:15, 19).
2.  Bitter suffering is not the sin of bitterness but is the pain felt from the bitterness of another.
3.  Bitter suffering is a burden that must be handled with the Problem Solving Devices.
     a.  Eyes need to be on the solution rather than the problem.  Subjective preoccupation with the problem intensifies it.
     b.  Jeremiah became depressed when he dwelt on the problem.
Lamentations 3:20  Depression
My soul continually thinks of it
And becomes depressed within me.
Thinking of the deep suffering leads to depression.
Lamentations 3:21 Recalling Doctrine
This I recall to heart;
Therefore, I have hope (confident expectation).
Jeremiah snapped out of his bitterness when he recalled Bible Doctrine and had hope (confident expectation) in God, whose Gracious Love and mercies never fail.

Signs of Bitterness in the Hands

1.  Cognitive processes are recorded in the hands along with various psychological aberrations.2
2.  Capacity for bitterness in rejection of authority may be gauged by the rigidity of the palm.  Rigidity is measured by holding the fingers together aligned with the palm, and then pushing the fingers back while keeping them aligned with the palm and the wrist rigid.  A rigid palm indicates capacity for strong reaction, whereas, a palm that is somewhat rigid may indicate tempered reaction.  A palm with very little rigidity (i.e. high elasticity) indicates a person who is weak as water and may be prone to extremism due to total willingness to be shaped by others.  Rigidity and stiffness in the entire hand, especially the fingers, indicates repression, which is unwillingness to be shaped by others.
3.  A C-shaped little finger symbolizes Personality Fragmentation, which is due to a bitter, vituperative mother who vents her rage over the cradle when the child is less than one year old.
4.  A bent tip phalange on the little finger symbolizes inverse guilt reaction.  This is due to bitterness in the mother toward the child.
5.  A little finger that leans apart from the other fingers symbolizes a person who hates his mother or a person in separate camps.
6.  A bent tip phalange on the index finger symbolizes denial and projection from suppressed anger.
7.  A thumb sticking outward symbolizes dictatorial belligerence.
8.  A club thumb symbolizes a person who is capable of sudden, violent outbursts of anger or tyranny.
9.  Large islands on the Head Line may indicate depression or other psychological problems.
10.  Crosses on the palm indicate intense suffering and cursing (bitterness of soul), like going to the cross.
11.  A Marriage Line that droops down toward the Heart Line indicates a weeping widow, who mourns for her lost husband.
12.  Dark spots indicate unforgiven sins, which can include pollution from bitterness.

Symbols of Bitterness

1.  Bitterness is symbolized by the biting of serpents (Gen 49:17; Prov 23:32; Eccl 10:8, 11; Jer 8:17; Amos 5:19; 9:3; Matt 12:34; Gal 5:15).
     a.  Venom of snakes symbolizes bitterness (Deut 32:32-33; Psa 58:4; 140:3).
     b.  Snakes with venom in their bites symbolize sins of the tongue of bitterness, such as vituperation and vilification (Rom 3:13; James 3:8).
2.  Bitterness is symbolized by animals which bite, such as dogs, hyenas, lions, tigers, crocodiles, and turtles (1 Sam 17:37; Ps 22:21; Gal 5:15; 2 Tim 4:17; 1 Pet 5:8).
     a.  Barking may be the expression of bitterness (Ex 11:7).
     b.  Growling or hissing may represent bitterness (Psa 59:15; Isa 5:29-30; 31:4; 59:11; Jer 51:38; Amos 3:4).
     c.  Snapping or gnashing the teeth represents bitterness (Job 16:9; Psa 35:16; 37:12; Lam 2:16; Acts 7:54).
     d.  Devouring or swallowing symbolizes death, going to the grave, or Sheol (Nu 16:34; Psa 21:9; 27:2; 52:4; Prov 1:12; Jer 15:3).  Just as swallowing symbolizes the grave, words that come up from the throat can symbolize words from the grave (death) (Psa 5:9).
3.  Bitterness is symbolized by insects which bite or sting, such as ants, bees, wasps, yellow flies, dog flies, mosquitoes, spiders (Ex 8:21; 23:28; Deut 1:44; Psa 78:45).
4.  Bitterness is symbolized by the sting of scorpions and centaur demons (Rev 9:5).
5.  Plants may also symbolize bitterness.
     a.  Plants with bitter taste wormwood3 (Lam 3:15, 19), bitter herbs (Nu 9:11), grapes of wrath (Deut 32:32), sour grapes that set the teeth on edge (Jer 31:29-30; Ezek 18:2).
     b.  Plants that cause bitter reaction - thorns, sandspurs, cactus, poison.
6.  Bitterness is symbolized by gall, which is opium or bile (from the gallbladder) (Psa 69:21; Jer 9:15; Acts 8:23).  Opium (gall) may refer to poison, which is synonymous with venom (Deut 32:32-33; Job 20:16).3
     a.  The fruit of idolatry is wormwood and gall (Deut 29:18).
     b.  Punishment of the reversionist is like the bitter medicine of wormwood and gall (Lam 3:19).
     c.  Pouring out one's gall (bile) is a metaphor for death (Job 16:13).
7.  The color for bitterness is blue-green.  However, the yellow color of jaundice, symbolizing loss of Capacity for Life, may be due to a weakened liver, which may be due to bitterness.
8.  Bitterness defiles the body and causes loss of sanctification.  Bodily wastes symbolize bitterness:
     a.  Excrement (1 Ki 14:10; 2 Ki 18:27; Isa 36:12; Heb 12:15)
     b.  Urine (slang piss); one who pisses against a wall is slang for a male (1 Sa 25:22, 34; 1 Ki 16:11; 21:21; 2 K 9:8)
     c.  Odor odious (Gen 34:30; Ex 5:21; 1 Sa 13:4; 27:12; 2 Sa 10:6; 16:21; 1 Chron 19:6); stench of corpses (Isa 34:3; Am 4:10; Jn 11:39).

Bitterness from Satanic Influence

1.  Satan in his rebellion against God has bitter hatred.  He motivated Cain to slay Able and continues to motivate murder and violence (Jn 8:44).
     a.  Satan inspires the Evil King, e. g. Nimrod, Pharaoh, and Nebuchadnezzar.
     b.  Satan motivates anti-Semitism.
     c.  Satan's strategy is to destroy Israel.  He will try this in the Tribulation.
2.  Satan and his demons have extreme bitterness beyond any human.
3.  Satan rules the world (Jn 12:31; 14:30; 16:11; 2 Cor 4:4).  All mankind is subject to him (1 Jn 5:19).
4.  Satan has the power, with God's permission, to subject, to influence (Eph 2:2; Rev 12:9; 20:3), to cross examine (Gen 3:1-5), to stir up violence and rebellion (Jn 8:44; Rev 20:8), and to execute people under the Sin Leading to Death (1 Cor 5:5; 1 Tim 1:20; Heb 2:14).
5.  Satan and his demons can attack the minds (2 Cor 11:3; 1 Tim 4:1) and bodies of humans (Mk 9:20-27; Lk 13:11-13).
     a.  They can put thoughts and illusions into the mind, cast spells (Deut 18:11), perform magic, sorcery, and divination (Lev 19:26, 31; Deut 18:10; Isa 8:19; Dan 2:2; Acts 19:19), and fill the heart with sinful lusts, desires, and temptations (Matt 4:3; Jn 13:2; Acts 5:3; 1 Cor 7:5; 2 Cor 2:11; 1 Thess 3:5; 1 Tim 2:14).
     b.  Although people have volition, they lack the power and sophistication to recognize and repulse the machinations of Satan, the master genius and most powerful created being apart from Jesus Christ.
     c.  Satan doesn't have to possess a person to have his way with that person.  Although there are weapons of Spiritual warfare the Christian can deploy against Satan (Rom 13:12; 2 Cor 10:4; Eph 6:13-18; 1 Thess 5:8), the Christian will almost certainly not recognize Satan or have a clue of what is happening and how to resist (2 Cor 11:14).
6.  Satanic and demonic influence upon a person includes the bitterness complex of sin (1 Jn 2:9, 11; 4:20).
     a.  This bitterness comes in out of the blue and is not directly due to a person's volition (Psa 69:4; Jn 15:25).
     b.  The person under demon influence does not choose to be bitter.
     c.  If a person has enough doctrine to recognize contradictions, he can Rebound and resist (Jas 4:7; 1 Pet 5:9), but he cannot send Satan and his demons away.  Only God can do that (2 Cor 12:9).
     d.  Bitterness from demon influence will go into the subconscious (or unconscious).  This is like suppressed anger.  A person doesn't even know he has it.  What is in the subconscious is not available to the conscious mind.
7.  Unconscious bitterness blocks the Light of human life and leaves darkness in the body (Luk 11:34-35).
     a.  The person with unconscious darkness walks in darkness under the power of Satan (Eph 2:2).
     b.  Darkness in the body invites further counterattacks from the Cosmic System (Matt 12:43, 45), has a negative influence on others (Prov 7:22-23, 27; 13:20; Matt 5:13; 1 Cor 5:6; 15:33; 2 Cor 6:14-16; 2 Tim 3:13; Tit 3:3; Jude 7, 8), and causes soulish and physical suffering, including sickness and death (Jas 5:1-3; Rev 2:22).4

Bitterness in Astrology

1.  The characteristics of the Bitterness Complex are symbolized by the signs of Scorpius, Capricornus, and Sagittarius.5
     a.  Scorpius, the scorpion, symbolizes Satan as the enemy of Christ.  The enemy has characteristics of the bitterness complex.
     b.  Capricornus, the goat, symbolizes Gentile lawlessness and tribulation (bitter suffering).
     c.  Sagittarius, the archer, symbolizes an enemy attack, raiding band, criminal gang, and suffering in or from a group.
2.  Bitterness is symbolized by the bitter sting of scorpions and centaur demons (Rev 9:5).
3.  Scorpius as the enemy can symbolize the murderer and liar (Jn 8:44).  The planets in Scorpius associated with bitterness are:
     Sun - a false prophet.
     Moon - Jezebel, the enemy of the Church from Ecumenical Babylon.
     Savior Planet - a Satanic attack on the believer.
     Red Planet - murder, violence, bloodshed, criminality.
     God of the Covenants Planet - doctrines of demons and apostasy of Satan, the enemy.
     Mediator Planet - the accuser, gossip, deceiver, and beguiler.
     Redeemer - the payoff of a criminal.
     Last Adam - the attack of Satan and the enemy.


1.  Unveiling the Emotions, Veronika Voss, 2008.
2.  Larry Wood.  Hands in Scripture, Bent or Bowed Forefinger, Oct. 1, 2011.
3.  Larry Wood.  "Wormwood and Gall," Feb. 21, 2012.
4.  Larry Wood.  Scar Tissue of the Soul, "Psychosomatic Problems," Oct. 1, 2011.
5.  Larry Wood.  Biblical Astrology, Feb. 2010.

Author:  Larry Wood,   Released - May 14, 2012 - Revised Apr. 22, 2016

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